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"The importance of clean motor oil-
Clean motor oil is important because if the oil were left unfiltered for a period of time, it could become saturated with tiny, hard particles that can wear surfaces in your engine. This dirty oil can wear the oil pump’s machined components and damage the bearing surfaces in the engine.
How oil filters work:
The outside of the filter is a metal can with a sealing gasket that allows it to be tightly held against the engines' mating surface. The base plate of the can holds the gasket and is perforated with holes around the area just inside the gasket. A central hole is threaded to mate with the oil filter assembly on the engine block. Inside the can is the filter material, most frequently made from synthetic fiber. The engines' oil pump moves the oil directly to the filter where it enteres from the holes in the perimeter of the base plate. The dirty oil is passed (pushed under pressure) through the filter media and back through the central hole, where it re-enters the engine"-Mobil
"Drum Brake System-The drum brake is a small drum which rotates with the wheel in case of automobile and has a pair of shoes known as brake shoes inside it. When the brake paddle is pressed then the brake shoes are forced against the side of the walls of the drum and apply brake by means of friction."-engineeringdiscoveries.com
"The disc brake has a disc-shaped metal plate and a calliper which is attached to the wheel and disc is rotates with the wheel of an automobile. The calliper is used to exert force on the pads. The friction lining of the calliper comes in contact with a small portion of the disc. The reaming portion of disc helps in dissipation of the heat to the surrounding. Two pads on either side of the disc are used and the friction lining is attached to both pad. Calliper is attached to the non-rotating member and exerts force on both the pads. When brake paddle is pressed then pads are also pressed against the rotating disc then the friction between the disc and pads retards the speed and stop the disc." -engineeringdiscoveries.com
Drum Brake System in Action:
Disc Rotor Types:
Brake Pad Types:
ORGANIC BRAKE PADS
"Originally, brake pads were made from asbestos, a heat-absorbing material that was well-suited for the wear and tear that brake pads took on. However, asbestos has been found to be a highly-potent carcinogen and prolonged exposure to it can cause cancer. Asbestos-based brake pads would wear down over time, releasing asbestos that stuck to tires and get into the air. Manufacturers realized asbestos wasn’t a safe compound to use for manufacturing braking systems. As a result, organic brake pads, or non-asbestos organic (NAO) brake pads, were created to fill the gap.
Organic brake pads, which come standard on about 67% of new vehicles sold within the United States, are made of a mixture of fibers and materials such as rubber, carbon compounds, glass or fiberglass, Kevlar, and more, and are bound together with resin. They tend to produce less dust than some other types of brake pads, such as metallic ones, and are available at a reasonably low price point. Unlike performance brake pads, which are primarily used in heavy and high-performance vehicles, organic brake pads generate a moderate amount of friction without much heat being present, making them suitable for drivers who use their cars for normal driving and commuting. Organic brake pads also tend to be quiet and don’t put much stress on the brake rotors, which is a plus because brake rotors can be costly to repair or replace if damaged.
However, organic brake pads do have some disadvantages when compared to other types of brake pads. Because of their composite nature, organic brake pads can tend to wear out a bit more quickly, meaning they might have to be replaced more often. They also tend to function best within a smaller range of temperatures, meaning they don’t work as well in extreme weather or when they are being pushed too hard and overheat. Organic brake pads also have a higher level of compressibility, which means the driver has to press the brake down with more force to engage them.
CERAMIC BRAKE PADS
Another option for brake pads are ceramic brake pads. These brake pads are made from ceramic very similar to the type of ceramic used to make pottery and plates, but is denser and a lot more durable. Ceramic brake pads also have fine copper fibers embedded within them, to help increase their friction and heat conductivity.
Since they were developed in the mid-1980s, ceramic brake pads have been consistently increasing in popularity for a number reasons:
Noise-Level: Ceramic brake pads are very quiet, creating little-to-no extra sound when the brakes are applied.
Wear & Tear Residue: Compared to organic brake pads, ceramic brake pads tend to produce less dust and other particles over time as they wear down.
Temperature & Driving Conditions: Compared to organic brake pads, ceramic brake pads can be more reliable in a wider range of temperatures and driving conditions.
But, as with most things, there is some “give” that comes with the “take”; ceramic brake pads do have some limitations. Primarily, their cost: due to higher manufacturing costs, ceramic brake pads tend to be the most expensive of all types of brake pad. Also, since both ceramic and copper can’t absorb as much heat as other types of materials, more of the heat generated by braking will pass through the brake pads and into the rest of the braking system. This can cause more wear and tear on other braking components. Lastly, ceramic brake pads aren’t considered the best choice for extreme driving conditions, such as very cold climates or racing conditions.
METALLIC BRAKE PADS
The final type of brake pad is the semi-metallic brake pad, often referred to as just “metallic brake pad”. Metallic brake pads are comprised of anywhere between 30% and 70% metals including copper, iron, steel, or other composite alloys. These various metals are combined with graphite lubricant as well as other fillers to complete the brake bad. The metallic brake pad compounds that are available vary, with each offering their own advantages for different situations as diverse as daily commutes to track racing.
For many drivers, especially those who value high-performance, the choice between ceramic vs. metallic brake pads is easy. Performance-driven drivers prefer the metallic brake pads because they offer improved braking performance in a much wider range of temperatures and conditions. Because metals are such a good conductor of heat, they tend to be able to withstand more heat while simultaneously helping braking systems cool back down more quickly. They also don’t compress as much as organic brakes, meaning less pressure needs to be applied to the brake pedal to affect stopping ability.
However, there are some disadvantages to metallic brake pads. They tend to be noisier than ceramic or organic brake pads - meaning a louder ride - as well as more stressful for the brake system, adding more strain and wear on the brake rotors. As far as price goes, metallic brake pads tend to fall somewhere between organic and ceramic pads. They tend to produce more brake dust than the other two varieties as well.
CHOOSING THE CORRECT BRAKE PAD
So which brake pad is the best choice for you when deciding between ceramic brake pads vs semi metallic vs. organic? It really is dependent on the ride you expect from your vehicle combined with your personal driving style. If you have a high-performance sport car, or at least drive your vehicle like it is one, you’re likely best off choosing semi-metallic brake pads. On the other hand, if you do a lot of urban commuting, you might find a solid ceramic brake pad to be the better option. If you don’t put a lot of mileage on your vehicle, an organic brake pad might be the best, low-price option for your driving habits.
Below is a simple table that illustrates some of the comparative differences between organic, ceramic, and metallic brake pads."-Bridgestone
Disc Pad Types:
Disc Brake System in Action:
Exhaust System Explained:
"A car’s gas tank is responsible for holding the vast majority of the gas in the fuel system. This tank can be filled from the outside via a small hole that is sealed with a gas cap when not in use. The gas then goes through a few steps before it reaches the engine:
The gas first enters the fuel pump. The fuel pump is what physically pumps fuel out of the gas tank. Some vehicles have multiple fuel pumps (or even multiple gas tanks), but the system still works the same. The advantage to having multiple pumps is that fuel cannot slosh from one end of the tank to another when cornering or traveling on an incline and leave the fuel pumps dry. At least one pump will have fuel going to it at any given time.
The pump pushes gasoline into the fuel lines. There are hard metal fuel lines in most vehicles that run the fuel from the tank towards the engine. They are run along parts of the vehicle where they will not be too exposed to the elements and will not get too hot from the exhaust or other components.
Before it can get to the engine, the gas has to pass through the fuel filter. The fuel filter removes any impurities or debris from the gasoline before it gets into the engine. This is a very important step and a clean fuel filter is key to a long-lasting and clean-running engine.
Finally, the gas reaches the engine. But how does it get into the combustion chamber?
The wonders of fuel injection
For the majority of the 20th century, carburetors were responsible for taking gasoline and mixing it with the appropriate amount of air for ignition in the combustion chamber. A carburetor relies on the suction pressure created by the engine itself to draw in air. This air carries with it fuel that is also present in the carburetor. This relatively simple design works pretty well, but suffers when the demands of the engine differ at different RPMs. Because the throttle decides how much of the air/fuel mixture the carburetor lets into the engine, the fuel is introduced in a linear way, with more throttle equalling more fuel. If the engine needs 30% more fuel at 5,000 RPM than it does at 4,000 RPM, for instance, a carburetor would struggle to make it run smoothly.
Fuel injection systems
To solve this problem, fuel injection was created. Rather than letting the engine draw in gas via its own pressure alone, electronic fuel injection uses a fuel pressure regulator to keep a steady vacuum of pressure drawing fuel to fuel injectors that spray a mist of gas into the combustion chambers. There are single-point fuel injection systems that introduce gasoline into a throttle body mixed with air. This air/fuel mixture then enters all of the combustion chambers as needed. Direct fuel injection systems (also called port fuel injection) have injectors delivering fuel right into the individual combustion chambers and have at least one injector per cylinder.
Mechanical fuel injection
Just like with wrist watches, fuel injection can work electronically or mechanically. Mechanical fuel injection is not very popular nowadays, as it is higher-maintenance and takes longer to tune to a specific application. Mechanical fuel injection works by mechanically metering the amount of air going into the engine and the amount of fuel going into the injectors. This makes it more difficult to calibrate.
Electronic fuel injection
Electronic fuel injection can be programmed to work best for a certain use such as towing or drag racing, and this electronic tuning takes less time than mechanical fuel injection and doesn’t need to be re-tuned as much as a carbureted system.
Ultimately, the fuel system on modern cars is controlled by the ECU, like so many others. This is not a bad thing, though, because engine issues and other problems can be solved with a software update in some cases. On top of that, the electronic controls allow mechanics to pull up data from the engine simply and consistently. Electronic fuel injection provides consumers with better fuel mileage and more consistent performance all around."-Yourmechanic.com
Fuel System Explained:
Starting System Explained:
"A car uses quite a lot of electricity to work the ignition and other electrical equipment.
If the power came from an ordinary battery, it would soon run down. So a car has a rechargeable battery and a charging system to keep it topped up.
The battery has pairs of lead plates immersed in a mixture of sulphuric acid and distilled water.
Half of the plates are connected to each terminal. Electricity supplied to the battery causes a chemical reaction that deposits extra lead on one set of plates.
When the battery supplies electricity, exactly the opposite happens: the extra lead dissolves off the plates in a reaction that produces an electric current.
The battery is charged by an alternator on modern cars, or by a dynamo on earlier ones. Both are types of generator, and are driven by a belt from the engine.
The alternator consists of a stator - a stationary set of wire coil windings, inside which a rotor revolves.
The rotor is an electromagnet supplied with a small amount of electricity through carbon or copper-carbon brushes (contacts) touching two revolving metal slip rings on its shaft.
The rotation of the electromagnet inside the stator coils generates much more electricity inside these coils.
The electricity is alternating current - its direction of flow changes back and forth every time the rotor turns. It has to be rectified - turned into a one-way flow, or direct current.
A dynamo gives direct current but is less efficient, particularly at low enginespeeds, and weighs more than an alternator.
A warning light on the dashboard glows when the battery is not being adequately charged, - for example, when the engine stops.
There may also be an ammeter to show how much electricity is being generated, or a battery-condition indicator showing the battery's state of charge".-Howacarworks.com
Steering System Explained:
"The steering system converts the rotation of the steering wheel into a swivelling movement of the road wheels in such a way that the steering-wheel rim turns a long way to move the road wheels a short way.
The system allows a driver to use only light forces to steer a heavy car. The rim of a 15 in. (380 mm) diameter steering wheel moving four turns from full left lock to full right lock travels nearly 16 ft (5 m), while the edge of a road wheel moves a distance of only slightly more than 12 in. (300 mm). If the driver swivelled the road wheel directly, he or she would have to push nearly 16 times as hard.
The steering effort passes to the wheels through a system of pivoted joints. These are designed to allow the wheels to move up and down with the suspension without changing the steering angle.
They also ensure that when cornering, the inner front wheel - which has to travel round a tighter curve than the outer one - becomes more sharply angled.
The joints must be adjusted very precisely, and even a little looseness in them makes the steering dangerously sloppy and inaccurate.
There are two steering systems in common use - the rack and pinion and the steering box.
On large cars, either system may be power assisted to reduce further the effort needed to move it, especially when the car is moving slowly.
The rack-and-pinion system
The pinion is closely meshed with the rack, so that there is no backlash in the gears. This gives very precise steering.
At the base of the steering column there is a small pinion (gear wheel) inside a housing. Its teeth mesh with a straight row of teeth on a rack - a long transverse bar.
Turning the pinion makes the rack move from side to side. The ends of the rack are coupled to the road wheels by track rods.
This system is simple, with few moving parts to become worn or displaced, so its action is precise.
A universal joint in the steering column allows it to connect with the rack without angling the steering wheel awkwardly sideways.
The steering-box system
At the base of the steering column there is a worm gear inside a box. A worm is a threaded cylinderlike a short bolt. Imagine turning a bolt which holding a nut on it; the nut would move along the bolt. In the same way, turning the worm moves anything fitted into its thread.
Depending on the design, the moving part may be a sector (like a slice of a gear wheel), a peg or a roller connected to a fork, or a large nut.
In worm-and-peg steering the worm moves the drop arm by means of a peg connected to a fork.
The nut system has hardened balls running inside the thread between the worm and the nut. As the nut moves, the balls roll out into a tube that takes them back to the start; it is called a recirculating-ball system.
The worm moves a drop arm linked by a track rod to a steering arm that moves the nearest front wheel.
In recirculating-ball steering, the thread between the worm and nut is filled with balls.
A central track rod reaches to the other side of the car, where it is linked to the other front wheel by another track rod and steering arm. A pivoted idler arm holds the far end of the central track rod level. Arm layouts vary.
The steering-box system has many moving parts, so is less precise than the rack system, there being more room for wear and displacement.
On a heavy car, either the steering is heavy or it is inconveniently low geared - the steering wheel requiring many turns from lock to lock.
Heavy gearing can be troublesome when parking in confined spaces. Power-assisted steering overcomes the problem. The engine drives a pump that supplies oil under high pressure to the rack or the steering box.
Valves in the steering rack or box open whenever the driver turns the wheel, allowing oil into the cylinder. The oil works a piston that helps to push the steering in the appropriate direction.
As soon as the driver stops turning the wheel, the valve shuts and the pushing action of the piston stops.
The power only assists the steering - the steering wheel is still linked to the road wheels in the usual way.
So if the power fails, the driver can still steer but the steering becomes much heavier."-Howacarworks.com
Date of Manufacture:
Inside a tire
How Tires are Made-Michelin